But with such a capacious catalog, there are rich seams to explore. One of the ultimate album artists, Bowie has also been one of the most anthologized, with multiple greatest-hits discs and a boxed set on the market. The deluxe three-disc version of Nothing Has Changed is an ideal, career-spanning combination of not only remastered hits but many rarities. His road band was a sonic force, pulsing like neon one minute and exploding with red-hot brio the next.
Along with the supple rhythm section of bassist—vocalist Gail Ann Dorsey and drummer Sterling Campbell, the group included lead guitarist Earl Slick, who had lit up Bowie albums off and on since the mid-Seventies. The man himself was in great form, his voice only having grown golden with the years. The most affecting song on Heathen is the spectral title elegy, marked by a tolling rhythm and hovering atmospherics courtesy of avant-star guitarist David Torn.
The remake trades the oblique irony of the original for an almost cinematic melancholy. The Pet Shop Boys re-produced the song for a single, but the album original and a live version on A Reality Tour are more aptly intense.
The album blends instrumentals and songs; the most memorable track is the tune-rich title song, threaded with image-laden lyrics of English life and a Lenny Kravitz guitar solo mixed in subtly toward the end. Tin Machine had the sharp intuition but bad luck of anticipating the grunge-era revolution of the s, predating the Nirvana breakthrough.
Bowie blended dark social commentary and scabrous humor into the lyrics, expressing himself in a tough-minded, less-refined way than in his solo work. He sounded far more at home musically if less whisky-soaked than The Doors with their cover. Bowie recorded the number in both live and studio versions, with the concert rendition on Stage blessed with cabaret verisimilitude. Jerusalem surrendered without major bloodshed to Babylon in The entire city, including the First Temple , was burned.
Israelite aristocrats were taken captive to Babylon. The Book of Ezekiel contains the first record of the New Jerusalem. Within Ezekiel , there is an extended and detailed description of the measurements of the Temple, its chambers, porticos, and walls. There were no defensive city walls until BCE. This text demonstrates the beginning of a progression of New Jerusalem thought. In Ezekiel, the focus is primarily on the human act of Temple construction.
New Jerusalem is further extrapolated in Isaiah,  where New Jerusalem is adorned with precious sapphires, jewels, and rubies. The city is described as a place free from terror and full of righteousness. Here, Isaiah provides an example of Jewish apocalypticism , where a hope for a perfected Jerusalem and freedom from oppression is revealed.
As the original New Jerusalem composition, Ezekiel functioned as a source for later works such as 4 Ezra , 2 Baruch , Qumran documents, and the Book of Revelation. These texts used similar measurement language and expanded on the limited eschatological perspective in Ezekiel. Judaism sees the Messiah as a human male descendant of King David who will be anointed as the king of Israel and sit on the throne of David in Jerusalem. He will gather in the lost tribes of Israel, clarify unresolved issues of halakha , and rebuild the Holy Temple in Jerusalem according to the pattern shown to the prophet Ezekiel.
During this time Jews believe an era of global peace and prosperity will be initiated, the nations will love Israel and will abandon their gods, turn toward Jerusalem, and come to the Holy Temple to worship the one God of Israel. Zechariah prophesied that any family among the nations who does not appear in the Temple in Jerusalem for the festival of Sukkoth will have no rain that year.
Isaiah prophesied that the rebuilt Temple will be a house of prayer for all nations. The city of YHWH Shamma, the new Jerusalem, will be the gathering point of the world's nations, and will serve as the capital of the renewed Kingdom of Israel. Ezekiel prophesied that this city will have 12 gates, one gate for each of the tribes of Israel. The book of Isaiah closes with the prophecy "And it will come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, all flesh will come to worship before Me, says YHWH ". The Animal Apocalypse within 1 Enoch chapters , is another example where conflict sparks hopes for the New Jerusalem.
An agitated Antiochus imposed harsh restrictions on Jewish religion. Circumcision, feast celebration, Sabbath observance were all banned. Antiochus ordered the burning of Torah copies. Jews were required to eat pork. The worst oppression came in the desecration of the Temple. A polytheistic cult was formed, and worship of YHWH abolished. A statue to a Seleucid deity was constructed on the Jewish altar. For the author of 1 Enoch, history is a steep descent into evil from the utopia in Eden. In this New Jerusalem passage, the sheep are the Jewish people, the builder is God, and the house is the Temple.
During the same time period, the Dead Sea scrolls contain a New Jerusalem tradition formed out of strife. Their condemnation of the Temple focused on criticizing High Priests. They were also frustrated that Judean Kings were also given the role of High Priest. The Essenes at Qumran predicted the reunified twelve tribes to rise together against Roman occupation and incompetent Temple leadership and re-establish true Temple worship.
The surviving New Jerusalem texts in Qumran literature focus specifically on the twelve city gates, and on the dimensions of the entire new city.
In 4Q, the gates of Simeon, Joseph, and Reuben are mentioned in this partial fragment. In 5Q15, the author accompanies an angel who measures the blocks, houses, gates, avenues, streets, dining halls, and stairs of the New Jerusalem. There are two important points to consider regarding the Qumran Essenes. First, we do not have enough scroll fragments to completely analyze their New Jerusalem ideologies. Second, based on the evidence available, the Essenes rebelled against Temple leadership, not the Temple itself.
Their vision of the New Jerusalem looked for the reunification of the twelve tribes around an eschatological Temple. As evidenced above, the historical progression of New Jerusalem language is specifically tied to conflict. The Babylonian Exile, Antiochene persecutions, and corrupt leadership in Jerusalem incited apocalyptic responses with a vision for a New Jerusalem.
In the 1st century CE, an even greater conflict exploded in Iudaea province ; the Roman destruction of Jerusalem , as well as the other Roman-Jewish Wars. Subsequent apocalyptic responses fundamentally altered the New Jerusalem eschatology for Jews and Early Christians. At the core, apocalypses are a form of theodicy.
They respond to overwhelming suffering with the hope of divine intercession and a perfected World to Come. Naturally, apocalyptic responses to the disaster followed. This section will first cover 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch. Fourth Ezra and 2 Baruch are important for two reasons. First, they look for a Temple in Heaven , not the eschaton. Second, these texts exhibit the final new Temple texts in Judaism.
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Jewish texts like 3 Baruch began to reject a restored Temple completely. However, these texts were deemed to be apocryphal by the Rabbis who maintained the belief in a Third Temple as central to Rabbinic Judaism. The Jewish apocalypse of 4 Ezra is a text contained in the apocryphal book 2 Esdras.
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The genre of 4 Ezra is historical fiction , set thirteen years after the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem. Fourth Ezra is dated approximately in 83 CE, thirteen years after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem. Ezra consoles the woman, and tells her to, "shake off your great sadness, and lay aside your many sorrows… the Most High may give you rest.
Suddenly, the woman is transfigured in an array of bright lights. She transforms into the New Jerusalem being rebuilt. As a bereaved widow she convinced Ezra to apply solace to himself through the image of a New Jerusalem. Fourth Ezra has two clear messages. First, do not grieve excessively over Jerusalem. Second, Jerusalem will be restored as a heavenly kingdom.
Fourth Ezra also uses the title "Most High," throughout the apocalypse to emphasis that the Lord will once again reign and reside in Jerusalem. The apocalypse of 2 Baruch is a contemporary narrative of 4 Ezra. The text also follows the same basic structure 4 Ezra: Job-like grief, animosity towards the Lord, and the rectification of Jerusalem that leads to the comfort of the Job-figure. Second Baruch is historical fiction, written after the Roman destruction but set before the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians.
Baruch responds with several theological questions for God. Baruch learns that the Lord will destroy the city, not the enemy. Baruch also learns of a pre-immanent heavenly Temple: "[The Temple] was already prepared from the moment I decided to create paradise. Two important conclusions come from 2 Baruch. First, the author dismisses hopes for an earthly re-built Temple. The focus is entirely on the heavenly Temple that pre-dated the Garden of Eden.
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This may be a device to express the supremacy of the heavenly Temple as a sanctuary built before Eden the traditional location of the earthly Temple. Second, Baruch believes that restoration for the people of Israel exists in heaven, not on earth. The apocalypse of 3 Baruch is the anomaly among post-revolt New Jerusalem texts. Unlike 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra, the text exemplifies an alternative tradition that lacks a restored Temple.
Like other apocalypses, 3 Baruch still mourns over the Temple, and re-focuses Jews to the heavens. Yet 3 Baruch finds that the Temple is ultimately unnecessary.
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This move could be polemical against works which afforded the Temple with excessive veneration. In the passage, an angel comes to Baruch and consoles him over Jerusalem: "Where is their God? And behold as I was weeping and saying such things, I saw an angel of the Lord coming and saying to me: Understand, O man, greatly beloved, and trouble not thyself so greatly concerning the salvation of Jerusalem. Third Baruch certainly mourns over the Temple.
Yet 3 Baruch is not ultimately concerned with the lack of a Temple. This text goes along with Jeremiah and Sibylline Oracles 4 to express a minority tradition within Jewish literature. In the first Christian apocalypse, the Book of Revelation coincides with this perspective on Jerusalem. The study will now move to early Christian perspectives on the Temple and the apocalyptic response in Revelation. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, the history of Jewish places of worship and the currents of thought in ancient Judaism described above served in part as the basis for the development of the Christian conception of the New Jerusalem.
Christians have always placed religious significance on Jerusalem as the site of The Crucifixion and other events central to the Christian faith. In particular, the destruction of the Second Temple that took place in the year 70, a few decades after Christianity began its split from Judaism , was seminal to the nascent Christian apocalypticism of that time.
In the Olivet discourse of the Gospels , Jesus predicts the destruction of Herod's Temple , and promises that it will precede the return of the Son of Man , commonly called the Second Coming. This prophecy of the renewal of Jerusalem by the messiah echoes those of the Jewish prophets. John of Patmos ' vision of the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation draws on the Olivet discourse and all the historical precursors mentioned above. Based on the Book of Revelation, premillennialism holds that, following the end times and the second creation of heaven and earth see The New Earth , the New Jerusalem will be the earthly location where all true believers will spend eternity with God.
The New Jerusalem is not limited to eschatology, however. Many Christians view the New Jerusalem as a current reality, that the New Jerusalem is the consummation of the Body of Christ , the Church and that Christians already take part in membership of both the heavenly Jerusalem and the earthly Church in a kind of dual citizenship.
It is also interpreted by many Christian groups as referring to the Church to be the dwelling place of the saints. John of Patmos describes the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation in the Christian Bible , and so the New Jerusalem holds an important place in Christian eschatology and Christian mysticism , and has also influenced Christian philosophy and Christian theology. Renewed Jerusalem bears as its motto the words Ad librum Latin: "as by the book". Many traditions based on biblical scripture and other writings in the Jewish and Christian religions, such as Protestantism , and Orthodox Judaism , expect the literal renewal of Jerusalem to some day take place at the Temple Mount in accordance with various prophecies.
Dispensationalists believe in a literal New Jerusalem that will come down out of Heaven , which will be an entirely new city of incredible dimensions. Other sects, such as various Protestant denominations , modernist branches of Christianity, Mormonism and Reform Judaism , view the New Jerusalem as figurative, or believe that such a renewal may have already taken place, or that it will take place at some other location besides the Temple Mount.
It is important to distinguish between "the camp of the saints, and the beloved city" spoken of in Revelation , and the New Jerusalem of chapter One of the most obvious differences is, the dimensions of the New Jerusalem of Rev. A large portion of the final two chapters of Revelation deals with John of Patmos' vision of the New Jerusalem. He describes the New Jerusalem as "'the bride, the wife of the Lamb'", where the river of the Water of Life flows Revelation After John witnesses the new heaven and a new earth "that no longer has any sea", an angel takes him "in the Spirit" to a vantage point on "a great and high mountain" to see New Jerusalem's descendants.
The enormous city comes out of heaven down to the New Earth. John's elaborate description of the New Jerusalem retains many features of the Garden of Eden and the paradise garden, such as rivers, a square shape, a wall, and the Tree of Life. According to John, the New Jerusalem is "pure gold, like clear glass" and its "brilliance [is] like a very costly stone, as a stone of crystal-clear jasper.
The base of the city is laid out in a square and surrounded by a wall made of jasper. It says in Revelation that the height, length, and width are of equal dimensions — as it was with the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle and First Temple — and they measure 12, furlongs which is approximately John writes that the wall is cubits , which is assumed to be the thickness since the length is mentioned previously.
It is important to note that 12 is the square root of The number 12 was very important to early Jews and Christians, and represented the 12 tribes of Israel and 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ. In this way, New Jerusalem is thought of as an inclusive place, with the 12 gates accepting all of the 12 tribes of Israel from all corners of the earth.
There is no temple building in the New Jerusalem. God and the Lamb are the city's temple, since they are worshiped everywhere. Revelation 22 goes on to describe a river of the water of life that flows down the middle of the great street of the city from the Throne of God. The tree of life grows in the middle of the street and to both sides of the river.
The tree bears twelve kinds of fruit and yields its fruit every month. According to John, "The leaves of the tree were for healing those of all nations. The fruit the tree bears may be the fruit of life. John states that the New Jerusalem will be free of sin. The servants of God will have theosis i. There are twelve 12 gates hanging from the wall of the New City of Jerusalem. These 12 gates are oriented in groups of three and face the four cardinal directions of the compass needle: the north, south, east and west. There is an angel at each gate, residing in a gatehouse.
The 12 gates are each made of a 'single' pearl , giving these the name " pearly gates ".
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