One has to take this with a grain of salt, for Stravinsky himself wrote ballets, which would be susceptible to the same criticism. Stravinsky, too, wrote a Mass…. These lectures close with a consideration of musical performance, with which Stravinsky had extensive personal experience, especially as a conductor. Naturally, this is the sort of thing you would expect a composer to say!
It is also in keeping with his view that musical pieces are objective productions of a skilled craftsman, like a chair. Presumably Stravinsky must have hated Glenn Gould. But a musician feels an understandable pressure to project his own personality in performance, not least as a way of distinguishing himself from the crowd of able musicians.
Most of us, I expect, recognize that a performance of a piece of music reflects a combination of what the composer intended us to hear and what the performer finds in the music. I very much enjoyed reading through these lectures. I always find Stravinsky stimulating; I cannot think of another person in the musical world today who is comparably articulate and eminent. Part of the problem is surely that the disintegration of our musical tradition which he lamented has been one of the factors causing it to disappear from public life.
But he was also just a special person, and it is probably simple folly to expect to find another like him. He can surprise me — as when he quotes, in these lectures, both Jacques Maritain and G. Chesterton — and he can provoke, but spending these few hours in his company has been very much worthwhile. It begins to be suspect when it pleads sincerity. Today radio brings music into the home at all hours of the day and night. It relieves the listener of all effort except turning a dial. Now the musical sense cannot be acquired or developed without exercise. In music, as in everything else, inactivity leads gradually to paralysis, to the atrophying of faculties.
Understood in this way way, music becomes a sort of drug which, far from stimulating the mind, paralyzes and stultifies it. So it comes about that the very undertaking which seeks to make people like music by giving it a wider and wider diffusion, very often only achieves the result of making the very people lose their appetite for music whose interest was to be aroused and whose taste was to be developed.
This entry was posted on November 13, at pm and is filed under Book Note , Books. Tags: Igor Stravinsky. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. All Manner of Thing All shall be well, all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well. Share this: Facebook Email Twitter. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email Address never made public. Your very old friend Claude Debussy 3 15th May Dear Friend, My telephone doesn't work and I fear you have tried to call without success. If you have seen Nijinsky and if he signed the papers please give them to the chauffeur.
It is urgent that they are at the Societe des Auteurs before five o'clock. Thank you, your old Debussy. This note, brought by Debussy's chauffeur, refers to forms from the Societe des Auteurs Debussy had given me to give Nijinsky, the co-stage author of Jeux. I was seeing Nijinsky every day at this time, and Debussy was only sure of reaching him through me. I still consider Jeux as an orchestral masterpiece, though I think some of the music is "trop Lalique.
Then, of course, they could be strung into a necklace. Perhaps this is not much consola- tion? The music from the Roi des Etoiles is still extraordinary. It is probably Plato's "harmony of the eternal spheres" but don't ask me which page of his. And, except on Sirius or Aldebaran, I do not foresee performances of this cantata for planets'. As for our more modest Earth, a performance would be lost in the abyss.
I hope that you have recovered. Take care, music needs you. Kindly convey my respects to your charming mother and best wishes to your wife. He was obviously puzzled by the music and nearly right in predicting it to be unperformable— it has had only a few perform- ances in very recent years and remains in one sense my most "radical" and difficult composition.
Naturally, people who are a little bit embarrassed by your growing mastery have not neglected to spread very discordant ru- mours—and if you are not already dead it is not their fault. I have never believed in a rumour— is it necessary to tell you this? Also, it is not necessary to tell you of the joy I had to see my name associated with a very beautiful thing that with the passage of time will be more beautiful still.
For me, who descend the other slope of the hill but keep, however, an intense passion for music, for me it is a special satisfaction to tell you how much you have en- larged the boundaries of the permissible in the empire of sound. Forgive me for using these pompous words, but they exactly express my thought. You have probably heard about the melancholy end of the Theatre des Champs Elysees?
It is really a pity that the only place in Paris where one had started to play music honestly could not be successful. May I ask you, dear friend, what you propose to do about it? I saw Diaghilev at Boris Godunov, the only performance it had, and he said nothing In any case are you com- ing to Paris? If you are annoyed to answer. This very moment I received your postcard— and I see by it, dear friend, that you never received my letter. It is very regrettable for me— you are probably very angry with me. Perhaps I wrote the address incorrectly. And also, Oustiloug is so far away.
I will not go to Lausanne— for some complicated reasons which are of no interest to you. This is one more reason for you to come to Paris— to have the joy of seeing each other. Know that I am going to Moscow the first of December. I gather you will not be there? Believe me that for this reason my journey will be a little more painful.
I wrote to Koussevitzky asking him for some necessary information- he does not answer. As for the "Societe de la Musique Actuelle" I want to do my best to be agreeable and to thank them for the honour they want to bestow on me. Only I don't know if I will have enough time to stay for the concert. My wife and Chouchou send you their affectionate thoughts and ask not to forget to give the same to your wife. Dear Stravinsky. You have acquired the habit since child- hood to play with the calendar and I confess that your 56 About Musicians and Others last card confused me.
At the same time I received a tele- gram from Koussevitzky telling me that I am expected in Moscow December 3 new style. As the concert in St.
Petersburg is the 10th you can see that I will not have time to do anything. Are you recovered from your cold? I heartily hope so. If you have nothing better to do I ad- vise you to go to Moscow. It is a marvellous city and you probably don't know it very well. You will meet there Claude Debussy, French musician, who loves you very much.
The Metropolitan Opera Guild
I had some news from your friends, who, I don't know why, kept the state of your health and your residence a mystery. We are all doing somewhat better, or in other words we are like the majority of the French people. We have our share of sorrows, of spiritual and domestic difficulties. But this is natural now that Europe and the rest of the world think it necessary to participate in this tragic "con- cert. As you wrote to me "they will be unable to make us join their madness.
But one must open one's eyes and ears to other sounds when the noise of the cannon has subsided! The world 57 Conversations with Igor Stravinsky must be rid of this bad seed. We have all to kill the mi- crobes of false grandeur, of organized ugliness, which we did not always realize was simply weakness. You will be needed in the war against those other, and just as mortal, gases for which there are no masks.
Dear Stravinsky, you are a great artist. Be with all your strength a great Russian artist. It is so wonderful to be of one's country, to be attached to one's soil like the humblest of peasants! And when the foreigner treads upon it how bitter all the nonsense about internationalism seems. In these last years, when I smelled "austro-boches" miasma in art, I wished for more authority to shout my worries, warn of the dangers we so credulously approached.
Did no one suspect these people of plotting the destruction of our art as they had prepared the destruction of our countries? And this ancient national hate that will end only with the last German! But will there ever be a 'last German? As for Nocturnes, Doret the Swiss composer is right, I made many modifications.
Unhappily, they are published by a publisher, Fromont, Colysee Street, with whom I am no more associated. Another trouble is that there are no more copyists, at this moment, capable of doing this deli- cate work. I shall search further and try to find a way to satisfy M. It must be confessed that music is in a bad situation here It only serves charitable purposes, and we must not blame it for that.
I remained here for more than a year without being able to write any music. Only during these last three months spent at the seaside with friends have I recovered the faculty of musical thinking. Unless one is personally involved in it, war is a state of mind contra- dictory to thought. That Olympian egotist Goethe is the 58 About Musicians and Others only one who could work, it is said, the day the French army came into Weimar. Then there was Pythagoras killed by a soldier at the moment when he was going to solve God knows what problem? Recently I have written nothing but pure music, twelve piano etudes and two sonatas for different instruments, in our old form which, very graciously, did not impose any tetralogical auditory efforts.
And you, dear friend, what have you been doing? Don't for heavens sake think you have to answer that ques- tion. I ask not out of vulgar curiosity but in pure affection. And your wife and children? Have you worries about them? My wife suffered badly from her eyes and from an un- bearable neuralgia-rheumatism. Chouchou has a cold; she makes it into something very serious by the attention she pays to her little person. It is very difficult to know when we will see each other and so we have only the weak resource of "words". Well, believe me your always devoted old Claude Debussy All our affectionate thoughts to your dear family.
I have received news from the "Societe des Auteurs" saying that you had chosen me as godfather for your entry in that society. I thank you. You have said that Jacques Riviere, as editor of the Nouvelle Revue Frangaise, was the first critic to have had an intuition about your music. What were his musical capabilities? At this distance I am not really able to answer that, for though I knew Riviere well before the war I never saw him again after it, and in forty-five years memories change color.
However, I can say that at the time I considered his criticism of my bal- lets to be literary, inspired more by the whole specta- cle than by my music. He was musical, certainly, and his musical tastes were genuine and cultivated, but whether he was capable of following the musical argu- ment of he Sacre du Printemps I can no longer judge. I remember Jacques Riviere as a tall, blond, intel- lectually energetic youth, a passionate balletomane, and at the same time a man with a deep religious vocation.
He came to Geneva from time to time when I lived there, and these meetings with him always afforded me much pleasure. He lived in semi-retire- ment after the war, his health ruined by his years as a prisoner of the Germans, and he died still young, a broken man. Rereading his letters I am struck a by the mal- ady of the French about theater tickets; they will do absolutely anything to get tickets except buy them; if Riviere was so vivement interested in the Night- ingale why didn't he go to the guichet and exchange a few francs for them?
But I have been near you in my thoughts all these days as I have started to put on paper some ideas about the 'Nightingale. They gave us great pleasure.
Believe me, my dear Stravinsky. Cocteau came there in the hope of persuading me to collaborate with him on a work to be called David, and Diaghilev followed him a few days later with the express intention of discouraging this same project. Diaghilev-Cocteau relations were not ideal at the time, any- way, as Diaghilev could not stand Cocteau's fondness for Nijinsky, but Diaghilev's excuse for the trip was the Nightingale. Until then he had ignored the existence of this opera out of jealousy— it had been commissioned by a Moscow theater but recently the people who were to produce it had declared bankruptcy, and he was now very interested: I had been paid by them 10, rubles, a huge sum of money for , and he could have the opera for nothing.
We returned to Paris where I played the Nightingale for Ravel and a group of friends. Among these was Jacques Riviere. I take this liberty only because yesterday evening I heard that a large number of complimentary tickets are available. You may well imagine how much I want my wife to hear this work from which I myself anticipate so much pleas- ure.
Yesterday I again heard the music of Petroushka and with profound emotion. I beg you, dear sir, to excuse my importunity and to believe in my friendship and sympathy. I succeeded in entering the Opera, however, but the conditions under which I heard the Nightingale were so unfavourable that I am not yet able to judge it well. But already I see that it promises me beautiful discoveries for the next performances. Again thank you, dear sir, and please believe in my admiration and my sympathy.
Probably he has done so, but I thank you most sincerely again. It is another matter I want to talk to you about today, however. Perhaps you already know that my friends have decided to entrust me with the direction of the Nouvelle Revue Frangaise, which will reappear June l. It is an hon- our of which I am very proud, but it is also a heavy burden and a source of grave preoccupations. I intend to direct the attention of the magazine to the anti-impressionist, anti-symbolist, and anti-Debussy move- ments that are becoming more and more precise and threatening to take the form and force of a vast new cur- rent.
But do not think you have been forgotten here. Everyone I see talks about you constantly. The influence of Pe- troushka and Sacre and even of your recent works on the younger musicians is obvious. An article by you will be read with curiosity and sympathy everywhere in the world. To make it easier for you, you could write it in Russian. If you have no one around to translate it, I think I can take charge of that, with the condition that the manu- script you send me is very legibly written.
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Of course, I will submit my translation to you for rectification. I do not need to tell you that without promising moun- tains of gold, I will assure you of our best possible fee for your work. Please forgive me for having fulfilled only one part of the requests you charged me with when we last saw each other in Geneva. Most of the people you asked me to see were not in Paris when I arrived there, however, and I myself was so long absent that by the time I finally re- turned some of the requests were out of date.
I will confidently await your answer hoping that it will not be otherwise than favourable, and with this conviction I beg you my dear Stravinsky to believe in my deepest friendship. Jacques Riviere P. If it will be difficult for you to send me your manuscript because of the Russian, please inform me and I will ask someone I know at the Foreign Affairs Office to facilitate the sending, and obtain the necessary authorization for you.
Ramuz, the Swiss novelist and co-librettist with me of V Histoire du Soldat. About Musicians and Others 5 PARIS, April 21, igig My dear Stravinsky, Of course your letter was disappointing as it deprives me of your collaboration; but it delighted me also because I think as you do, that a real creator should not lose his time discoursing about the tendencies and consequences of his art.
His work must be self-explanatory. However, if one day the desire overtakes you to write not about your- self, but about others, about Debussy for instance, or Rus- sian contemporary music, or some other subject, then think about me and do not forget that our pages are always open to you. With friendship, your Jacques Riviere P.
What is this new "Suite from the Firebird," a ballet? Have you any notion where the manuscript of yours and Ravel's instrumentation of Khovanshchina might be? I left it in Oustiloug on my last trip to Russia and therefore assume it to be lost or destroyed. I wish someone traveling in Volhynia and passing through Oustiloug would investigate whether my house still stands; not long ago some kind person sent me a photograph of it but did not mention whether it had survived the Nazi invasion, and I could not tell if the photo was pre- or post-war.
However, I feel certain that Bessel had already engraved it in Russia just before the  war. The plates should exist, there- fore, with the inheritors of Bessel's Russian firm. I remember a money struggle with Bessel, who said we were demanding too much and argued that "Moussorgsky received only a fraction of what you are asking. The idea of asking Ravel to collaborate with me on an instrumentation of Khovanshchina was mine. I was afraid not to be ready for the spring season of and I needed help. Unfortunately, however, Diaghilev cared less about establishing a good instru- mentation of the opera and rescuing it from Rimsky- Korsakov than about our version as a new vehicle for Chaliapin.
That idiot from every nonvocal point of view, and from some of these, could not realize the 66 About Musicians and Others value of such instrumentation. He declined to sing, and the project was abandoned, though we had al- ready done considerable work. I orchestrated Shak- lovity's famous and banal aria, the final chorus, and some other music I no longer remember. Moussorgsky had only sketched— really only projected— the final chorus; I began with Moussorgsky's original and com- posed it from Moussorgsky, ignoring Rimsky-Korsa- kov.
Ravel came to Clarens to live with me, and we worked together there in March-April The town was very crowded and we could not find two hotel rooms or even two beds, so we slept together in one. When I think of him, for example, in rela- tion to Satie, he appears quite ordinary. His musical judgment was very acute, however, and I would say that he was the only musician who immediately un- derstood Le Sacre du Printemps. He was dry and reserved, and sometimes little darts were hidden in his remarks, but he was always a very good friend to me.
He drove a truck or ambulance in the war, as you know, and I admired him for it, because at his age and with his name he could have had an easier place —or done nothing. He looked rather pathetic in his uniform; so small, he was two or three inches smaller than I am. I think Ravel knew when he went into the hospital for his last operation that he would go to sleep for the last time.
He said to me, "They can do what they 67 Conversations with Igor Stravinsky want with my cranium as long as the ether works. I did not visit him in this hospital, and my last view of him was in a funeral home. The top part of his skull was still bandaged. His final years were cruel, for he was gradually losing his memory and some of his co-ordinating powers, and he was, of course, quite aware of it. Gogol died screaming and Diaghilev died laughing and singing La Boheme, which he loved genuinely and as much as any music , but Ravel died gradually.
That is the worst. Three weeks ago I heard about your sudden death, but was not stricken by it as the same morn- ing we received a postcard from you. We count on your presence. I will be in London in three days and hope to hear talk about the Sacre. And the Nightingale, will he soon sing? My respectful compliments to Mme.
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I hope it is only a precaution. I beg you, reassure me by a word. I have taken refuge here in the country of my birthplace to work, as work was becoming quite impossible in Paris. Kiss the children for me, and present to Mme. Stravinsky my respectful compliments. What becomes of you in all this? I was not so lucky. They did not need me. I hope that when they have re-examined all the discharged soldiers, and after all the measures I will take, to be back in Paris, if I have the means.
The thought that I would go away forced me to do five months' work in five weeks. I have finished my Trio. How is your wife? Write me quickly, mon vieux. If you only knew how painful it is to be far from everything! Affectionate souvenirs to all. No news from the Benois. What has become of them? I want to go away more than ever. I cannot work any more. When we arrived Maman had to stay in bed. Now she is up, but she has to keep to an albumin-free diet. Her age and her anxieties are of course the cause of this condition. No news from Edouard since the 28th October; a whole month and we do not know what has happened to him.
Delage is now in Fontainebleau. From time to time he is sent on a commission somewhere.
I still haven't seen Misia. Remember me to your family, cher vieux. Write to me very soon I beg you. Believe in my brotherly friendship. The issue of L'Oeil for Christmas contains a history of this extraordinary family. But come quickly, otherwise you will not find me here any more. I will be working as a driver. It was the only means for me to get to the city, where I had to see Daphnis et Chloe.
You don't give me news from your brother. I hope he is completely recovered. Try to hasten your arrival. Our affectionate thoughts to you. Maurice Ravel 6 January 2, Ainsi, vieux. Everything was prepared to give you, our ally, a proper welcome. The Persian room with voiles from Genoa, prints from Japan, toys from China, in short a synthesis of the "Russian Season. Ah, the caprice of the Slav! I wrote you that I will soon go away, but I doubt that they will send me in your direction.
I wait for news from your brother and from you and all your family. Meanwhile, accept all our affectionate wishes for the New Year New Style. They would have given you my address and my telephone number Saint Cloud 2. Well, I hope to meet you soon, perhaps even in Morges, because I will try to go there to see my uncle before the end of the fall.
I continue to do nothing. I am probably empty. Give me your news soon and if you go through Paris again try to be a little bit cleverer and do a little better. And I regret that I couldn't hear and see more performances of them. But it seemed already unwise to come the other evening; my foot was again very swollen and I now have to go back and rest again until next Sunday at least.
What do you recall of Erik Satie? He was certainly the oddest person I have ever known, but the most rare and consistently witty person too. I had a great liking for him, and he ap- preciated my friendliness, I think, and liked me in return. With his pince-nez, umbrella, and galoshes he looked a perfect schoolmaster, but he looked just as much like one without these accouterments.
He spoke very softly, hardly opening his mouth, but he deliv- ered each word in an inimitable, precise way. His handwriting recalls his speech to me: it is exact, drawn. His manuscripts were like him also, which is to say, as the French say, fin. No one ever saw him wash— he had a horror of soap. Instead he was forever rubbing his fingers with pumice.
He was always very poor, poor by conviction, I think. He lived in a poor section and his neighbors seemed to appreciate his coming among them: he was greatly respected by them. His apartment was also very poor. It did not have a bed but only a hammock. In winter Satie would fill bottles with hot water and put them flat in a row underneath his hammock.
It looked like some strange kind of marimba.
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I remember once when someone had promised him some money he replied: "Monsieur, what you have said did not fall on a deaf ear. His sarcasm depended on French classic usages. The first time I heard Socrate, at a seance where he played it for a few of us, he turned around at the end 74 About Musicians and Others and said in perfect bourgeoisie, "Voila, messieurs, dames. Debussy in- troduced him to me and Debussy "protected" and remained a good friend to him. In those early years he played many of his compositions for me at the piano. I don't think he knew much about instruments and I prefer Socrate as he played it to the clumsy orchestra score.
I always thought them literarily limited. The titles are literary, and whereas Klee's titles are literary, they do not limit the painting; Satie's do, I think, and they are very much less amus- ing the second time. But the trouble with Socrate is that it is metrically boring.
Who can stand that much regularity? All the same, the music of Socrates' death is touching and dignifying in a unique way. Satie's own sudden and mysterious death— shortly after Socrate— touched me too. He had been turned to- wards religion near the end of his life and he started going to Communion. I saw him after church one morning, and he said in that extraordinary manner of his: "Alors, fai un peu communique ce matin. Will you describe your meeting with Schoenberg in Berlin in? Did you speak German with him?
Was he cordial or aloof? Was he an able conductor of Pierrot? Webern was present at the Berlin rehears- als of Pierrot; do you have any recollection of him? You wrote about the instrumentation of Pierrot but not about its use of strict contrapuntal devices or its polyphony; how did you feel about these innova- tions at the time? Diaghilev invited Schoenberg to hear my ballets, Fire- bird and Petroushka, and Schoenberg invited us to hear his Pierrot Lunaire.
I do not remember whether Schoenberg or Scherchen or Webern conducted the rehearsals I heard. Diaghilev and I spoke German with Schoenberg, and he was friendly and warm, and I had the feeling that he was interested in my music, especially in Petroushka. It is difficult to recollect one's impressions at a distance of forty-five years; but this I remember very clearly: the instrumental sub- stance of Pierrot Lunaire impressed me immensely.
And by saying "instrumental" I mean not simply the instrumentation of this music but the whole contra- puntal and polyphonic structure of this brilliant in- strumental masterpiece. Unfortunately I do not re- member Webern— though I am sure I did at least meet him, in Schoenberg's house in Zehlendorf. Im- mediately after the war I received some very cordial letters from Schoenberg inquiring about various small pieces of mine that he and Webern were preparing for performance in his famous Vienna concert series, 76 About Musicians and Others the Society for Private Performances.
Then, in , he wrote a very nasty verse about me though I almost forgive him, for setting it to such a remarkable mirror canon. I do not know what had happened in be- tween. And Berg, did you know him? I met him only once, in Venice, in September He came to see me in the greenroom at La Fenice, where I conducted my Capriccio in a Biennale con- cert with my son Soulima at the piano. Although it was my first sight of him, and I saw him for only a few minutes, I remember I was quite taken by his famous charm and subtlety. Has your estimate of Schoenberg and his position been affected by the recent publication of his un- finished works?
His scope is greatly enlarged by them, but I think his position remains the same. However, any newly revealed work by a master will challenge judgment of him in some particular— as Eliot says that Dante's minor works are of interest because they are by Dante, so anything by Schoenberg, a piece of incunabula like the string Quartet, an arrangement like his reduction for two pianos of the Barber of Seville, are of interest to us because they are by Schoenberg. The most interesting of the unfinished works are the three pieces for an ensemble of solo instruments com- posed in or They force us to reconsider the extent of Webern's indebtedness respecting in- strumental style and the dimension of the short piece.
I have heard these pieces several times since. They are not much like Webern, and the most memorable of them, the third one, is very unlike Webern indeed. Of these posthumous publications Moses und Aron is in a category by itself: whereas the other works are unfinished, it is unfinished but complete— like Kafka stories in which the nature of the subject makes an ending in the ordinary sense impossible.
Moses und Aron is the largest work of Schoenberg's maturity and the last he was to write in Europe. It does not af- fect our view of his historical role, however. Schoenberg's work has too many inequalities for us to embrace it as a whole. For example, nearly all of his texts are appallingly bad, some of them so bad as to discourage performance of the music. Then, too, his orchestrations of Bach, Handel, Monn, Loewe, Brahms differ from the type of commercial orchestra- tion only in the superiority of craftsmanship: his intentions are no better.
Indeed, it is evident from his Handel arrangement that he was unable to ap- preciate music of "limited" harmonic range, and I have been told that he considered the English vir- ginalists and, in fact, any music that did not show a "developing harmony," primitive. The latter work is in fact, so striking that it robs not only Jacob's Ladder but even so late a work as Boulez's Le Visage Nuptial of originality. We— and I mean the generation who are now saying "Webern and me"— must remem- ber only the perfect works, the Five Pieces for Or- chestra except for which I could bear the loss of the first nineteen opus numbers , Herzgewachse, Pierrot, the Serenade, the Variations for orchestra, and, for its orchestra, the "Seraphita" song from op.
By these works Schoenberg is among the great composers. Musicians will take their bearings from them for a great while to come. They constitute, to- gether with a few works of not so many other com- posers, the true tradition. How do you now esteem Berg's music? If I were able to penetrate the barrier of style Berg's radically alien emotional climate I suspect he would appear to me as the most gifted constructor in form of the composers of this century. He transcends even his own most overt modeling.
In fact, he is the only one to have achieved large-scale development-type forms without a suggestion of "neoclassic" dissimula- tion. His legacy contains very little on which to build, however. He is at the end of a development and form and style are not such independent growths that we can pretend to use the one and discard the other , whereas Webern, the Sphinx, has bequeathed a whole foundation, as well as a contemporary sensi- bility and style.
Berg's forms are thematic in which 79 Conversations with Igor Stravinsky respect, as in most others, he is Weberns opposite ; the essence of his work and the thematic structure are responsible for the immediacy of one form. However complex, however "mathematical" the latter are, they are always "free" thematic forms born of "pure feeling" and "expression. Berg's personality is mature in these pieces, and they seem to me a richer and freer expression of his talent than the twelve-note serial pieces.
When one considers their early date— ; Berg was twenty-nine— they are something of a miracle.
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